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karebaindonesia.id,OPINI–Malin Kundang sudah sangat melekat namanya sebagai anak yang durhaka di Ranah Minang, diceritakan ia lahir dan besar di kawasan yang sekarang disebutnya Pantai Ayia Manih. Lalu setelah ia besar, merantau, dan menikahi putri raja, dia pulang sebagai sudagar kaya raya dan menjadi durhaka bahkan tidak ingin mengenali Ibunya. Lalu dikutuklah ia menjadi batu dan masih dapat disaksikan batunya hingga hari ini. Setidaknya begitulah orang-orang umumnya menceritakan tentang sosok Malin Kundang. Bukan hanya disebarkan melalui lisan saja, tetapi juga dikenalkan melalui banyak karya seni baik pementasan di panggung ataupun film di layar kaca.

Pada tahun 1953, A.A Navis menulis sebuah cerpen berjudul Malin Kundang, Ibunya Durhaka. Cerpen yang memberikan perspektif baru dari kisah si Malin Kundang. “Inikah perempuan yang kau katakan sebagai ibu yang anggun bijaksana, yang selalu bernyayi bila sunyi, bersenandung bila murung?” Begitulah kutipan pertanyaan dari si putri raja yang menyertai suaminya pulang ke kampung halaman, Malin Kundang. Bukan berhenti di sana, si putri raja juga meragukan tempat yang tidak sesuai dengan penggambaran si Malin. Namun dalam cerpen itu si Ibu selama Malin merantau, Ibunya berganti-ganti lelaki di ranjang hingga ia terlena, dan membiarkan para lelaki yang berasal dari negeri seberang. Parahnya lagi ada satu laki-laki yang dijanjikan si Ibu akan membagi harta jika Malin pulang dari rantau. Hal ini melukai hati Malin sampai dia mengatakan penyesalannya, “Engkau perempuan laknat. Kalau benar kau ibuku, aku kutuk diriku agar menjadi batu. Biar semua orang tahu, Malin Kundang lahir dari perut yang keliru.

Sampai di sini kita sudah punya dua perspektif dari cerita si Malin Kundang, namun ada perspektif lain yang mungkin saja hadir dalam cerita si Malin. Mungkin saja yang durhaka adalah kaum sepesukuan Malin. Iya, mungkin saja kaum adatnya yang durhaka. Kita pasti sering mendengar cerita kalau Malin selalu digendong oleh Ibunya saat mencari kayu ke hutan, nanti kayu-kayu tersebut akan dijual untuk pemenuhan kebutuhan dapur mereka. Bertolak belakang dengan kondisi kehidupan perempuan pada waktu yang melatari cerita tersebut; ‘’pada masa dahulu’’. Mari kita bahas, latar waktunya adalah pada masa dahulu, latar tempatnya di kawasan Pantai Ayia Manih, yang mana dalam pemetaan Ranah Minang masuk ke dalam kawasan rantau Minangkabau.   

Nah dalam adat Minangkabau, laki-laki Minangkabau wajib mempertanggungjawabkan kehidupan saudara perempuan, saudara perempuan dari saudara perempuan Ibu, hingga anak perempuan dari saudara perempuan. Bukan saja bertanggung jawab dalam membantu finansial saja, tetapi juga menjaga si perempuan dari kesusahan lainnya, begitu aturan Minangkabau secara umum dan mungkin lebih ketat dibandingkan faktual kekinian dari aturan tersebut. Maka seharusnya Ibu si Malin tidak dibolehkan turut serta mencari uang untuk kehidupan dapur, sebab seharusnya ada saudara laki-laki yang mencukupkan isi periuknya sebagai limpapeh rumah gadang. Terlebih ‘pada masa dahulu’ adalah tabu jika perempuan tak bersuami pergi keluar rumah, bahkan akan menjadi malu niniak mamak­-nya (laki-laki sepersukuan).

Selain itu, laki-laki Minangkabau juga bertanggung jawab membimbing anak kemenakan. Maka niniak mamak akan turun untuk menengahi perdebatan itu, maka tidak akan ada hardik-menghardik. Jika pun tetap menghardik, mungkin niniak mamak akan mengambil langkah tegas untuk menghadapinya. Dan sebenarnya di setiap suku dan agama juga pasti tidak akan membiarkan ada orang menghardik Ibunya, apalagi di Minangkabau sendiri menganut sistem kekeluargaan Matrilinial. Tetapi dalam cerita yang selama ini diperkenalkan kepada kita, tidak satupun orang yang berani terhadap Malin.

Atau mungkin saja si Malin bukanlah orang Minang seperti yang selama ini digambarkan oleh cerita, mungkin saja kan? Sebab tidak ada kehadiran niniak mamak dengan segala fungsinya yang dimunculkan dalam cerita-cerita yang muncul itu ataupun sosok laki-laki yang menjalankan fungsi seorang mamak. Terlebih latar tempatnya ada di pinggir laut yang menjadi jalur utama perdagangan pasa masa dahulu. Mungkin saja Ibu si Malin merupakan pendatang dari luar Minangkabau yang melanjutkan kehidupannya di sana, lalu lama suami tak pulang, hidup menjanda di sana tanpa keluarga baik pertalian darah ataupun pertalian adat. Sehingga ketika terjadi hardikan dari si Malin tidak ada Pangulu dan Ampek Jinih yang hadir menengahi. Jadi, kemungkinan mana yang kalian percaya?

Profil Penulis:

,,, Uni Rere Reza, perempuan kelahiran Sumatra Barat 20 Februari 1995 ini merupakan lulusan Sastra Indonesia Universitas Bung Hatta. Menyukai nonton konser dan pendengar yang baik dalam obrolan. Dapat ditemukan menulis pasif di blog unirerereza.blogspot.com dan aktif bermain media sosial di akun instagram @unirerereza. Tidak banyak track-record bagus, hanya sering mencoba hal baru. Sedang melanjutkan pendidikan di Ilmu Sastra Universitas Andalas, Padang.

14 thoughts on “Malin Kundang Durhaka? Emang Iya?”
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