Oleh: Ust. Alfian Ruhyat (pengajar di Lembaga Pendidikan Miftahul Huda, Jakarta)

Ilustrasi (karebaindonesia.id)

karebaindonesia.id – “Janganlah kamu membunuh dirimu. Allah Maha Penyayang kepadamu.”
(QS. an-Nisa: 29).

Di antara misi utama yang dibawa oleh agama Islam adalah menjaga lima perkara yang sangat mendasar, yaitu: menjaga agama; menjaga jiwa; menjaga akal; menjaga kehormatan; dan menjaga harta. Termasuk dalam menjaga jiwa adalah segala hal yang berkaitan dengan kesehatan dan pencegahan penyakit, tentu saja di luar menghormati nyawa orang lain. Ayat di atas secara tegas melarang manusia melakukan bunuh diri dalam bentuk apa pun dan dengan cara apa pun. Jiwa manusia sangat mahal. Ia harus dijaga dan dipelihara. Ia adalah amanah dari Allah SWT. Dalam Islam, keselamatan jiwa lebih utama. Membunuh diri tidak hanya menusuk badan dengan pisau, menembak diri dengan pistol, menjatuhkan diri dari ketinggian. Bisa dikatakan membunuh diri bila dengan sengaja membiarkan diri jatuh dalam bahaya dan kebinasaan, membiarkan diri tertular penyakit, tidak berhati-hati, dan mengabaikan protokol kesehatan.

Makna kedua dari “janganlah kamu membunuh dirimu”, yaitu janganlah kamu membunuh orang lain apalagi saudaramu sesama mukmin. Sebab, persaudaraan, cinta kasih, dan sifat sayang mukmin yang satu dengan yang lain ibarat satu tubuh seperti disebutkan dalam hadis Nabi SAW. Karena itu, setiap Muslim dilarang melakukan sesuatu yang bisa membahayakan orang lain. Nabi SAW bersabda, “Tidak boleh mandatangkan bahaya untuk diri sendiri dan orang lain.” (HR Ibn Majah dan ad-Daraquthni). Termasuk, tidak boleh menularkan bahaya, penyakit, atau virus kepada orang lain dengan sengaja ataupun karena ceroboh dan abai. Dalam ayat lain, Allah berfirman, “Janganlah kalian menjatuhkan diri kalian ke dalam kebinasaan.” (QS. al-Baqarah: 195). Ayat ini juga menunjukkan wajibnya menjauhi sebab-sebab yang akan mengantarkan kepada kebinasaan jiwa.

Dalam kitab Zadul Maad, pada pembahasan tentang ath-Thibb an-Nabawi (Kedokteran Nabawi), Imam Ibnul Qayim mengatakan, “Karena kasih sayangnya yang sangat besar terhadap umatnya dan dorongan memberikan nasehat kepada umat, Nabi SAW melarang umat melakukan sebab-sebab yang bisa mengantarkan kepada sakit dan kerusakan pada fisik dan hati mereka.” Keterangan ini menunjukkan bahwa Islam mengajarkan prinsip wajibnya menempuh tindakan preventif (pencegahan) dalam bentuk menghindari sebab-sebab terjadinya penularan penyakit. Menjaga jiwa juga erat kaitannya untuk menjamin atas hak hidup manusia seluruhnya tanpa terkecuali. Dalam Islam, jiwa atau nyawa manusia memiliki nilai yang sangat tinggi. Orang yang menghilangkan nyawa orang lain (membunuh), diumpamakan sama seperti membunuh semua orang di muka bumi, begitu pun pada saat menyelamatkan satu nyawa orang, maka seolah ia menyelamatkan nyawa semua orang.

“Barang siapa yang memelihara kehidupan seorang manusia, maka seolah-olah dia telah memelihara kehidupan manusia semuanya.” (QS, al-Maidah: 32)

Ini artinya, umat Islam tidak boleh nekad melakukan sesuatu yang bisa membahayakan dirinya sendiri. Nabi menyatakan: la dharar wala dhirar (tidak boleh ada bahaya atau tindakan yang bisa membahayakan, baik terhadap diri sendiri maupun orang lain). Dalam hadits lain yang diriwayatkan Imam al Hakim dan Baihaqi juga disebutkan: 

“Barangsiapa membahayakan orang lain, maka Allâh akan membalas bahaya kepadanya dan barangsiapa menyusahkan atau menyulitkan orang lain, maka Allah akan menyulitkannya.”

Ayat dan teks hadis ini secara tegas dan jelas menyebutkan bahwa umat Islam diperintahkan untuk menghindar dari bahaya atau melakukan tindakan berbahaya yang bisa mencelakai diri sendiri maupun orang lain. Upaya menjaga keselamatan diri ini juga dianjurkan ketika menghadapi wabah penyakit sebagaimana dikatakan Nabi:

“…. Kalau kalian mendengar ada wabah thaun di suatu negeri, janganlah kalian memasuki negeri tersebut. Namun, bila wabah thaun itu menyebar di negeri kalian, janganlah kalian keluar dari negeri kalian menghindar dari penyakit itu.” (HR Bukhari-Muslim)

Dalam Hadis yang lain Nabi bersabda: 

“Jika kalian mendengar wabah terjadi di suatu wilayah, janganlah kalian memasuki wilayah itu. Sebaliknya, jika wabah itu terjadi di tempat kalian tinggal, janganlah kalian meninggalkan tempat itu.” (HR al-Bukhari)

Berdasarkan hadis ini, Ibnul Qayyim al-Jauziy menyatakan bahwa orang yang tetap memaksakan diri masuk ke daerah wabah, atau nekad melanggar aturan kesehatan, sama saja dengan membinasakan dirinya sendiri dan itu bertentangan dengan syariat Islam. Sikap menghindar dari bahaya yang bisa mengancam keselamatan diri maupun orang lain ini tidak hanya disebutkan dalam teks, tetapi juga dicontohkan oleh Nabi Muhammad.

Bahkan Islam tidak menyuruh ummatnya melakukan ibadah atau menjalankan Syariah secara berlebihan sehingga melampuai kemempuan diri. Hal ini tercermin dalam hadis Nabi yang diriwayatkan dari dari Anas ra. Dalam hadits ini disebutkan adanya tiga orang sahabat yang menganggap amal ibadah Nabi sangat minimalis, hanya sedikit saja. Kemudian mereka bertiga datang menghadap Nabi dan menceritakan tentang kehebatan amal ibadah masing-masing sehingga melampaui batas kemanusiaan. Mengetahui hal ini kemudian Rasul bersabda kepada mereka:

“Kalian tadi berbicara begini dan begitu? Demi Allah, sesungguhnya aku adalah orang yang paling takut dan paling takwa kepada Allah di antara kalian, tetapi aku berpuasa dan berbuka, aku shalat dan aku tidur malam, aku juga mengawini perempuan. (Itulah sunah-sunahku) siapa saja yang benci terhadap sunahku, maka ia bukan termasuk golonganku.” (HR Bukhari dan Muslim)

Hadits ini jelas menyiratkan bahwa beribadah itu yang wajar saja, tidak boleh melampaui batasan kemanusiaan sehingga bisa membahayakan diri sendiri.

Dalam kondisi sekarang ini, di mana merebaknya wabah Corona yang membahayakan karena mengancam jiwa manusia, maka selayaknya para agamawan bersikap bijak dengan meniru apa yang sudah dicontohkan Nabi, para sahabat dan ulama. Sikap menolak prosedur kesehatan dan hukum sains dengan mengatasnamakan takdir dan kekuasaan Allah, atau menghadapkan bahaya wabah corona dengan kekuasaan Allah tidak saja membahayakan ummat tetapi juga bertentangan dengan ajaran Islam dan apa yang sudah dicontohkan Nabi. Ikhtiar menjaga diri dari serangan wabah bukan berarti tidak percaya pada kekuasaan Allah, justru hal itu menjadi bagian dari yang disyariatkan Allah.  Karena dalam Islam menjaga dan melindungi jiwa jauh lebih penting.

Itulah sebab, mengapa dalam Maqasid Syariah — konsep hukum gagasan Imam Asy-Syatiby yang menjelaskan bahwa setiap syariat diturunkan untuk tujuan-tujuan tertentu — ditegaskan bahwa tujuan utama syariat Islam adalah menjaga nyawa/jiwa (hifdzun nafs), di samping untuk menjaga agama/keyakinan (hifdzud din); menjaga akal/pikiran (hifdzul aql); menjaga keturunan (hifdzun nasl); dan menjaga harta/kepemilikan (hifdzul mal).

Rasulullah SAW diutus ke muka bumi untuk memberi rahmat bagi alam semesta. Inilah dasar yang kokoh bagi keberadaan Islam sebagai rahmatan lil alamin. Artinya, keberadaan seorang Muslim, di manapun dia, selain harus menjaga keamanan bagi dirinya, juga harus memberi rasa aman dan kedamaian bagi orang lain yang ada di sekelilingnya. Tidak beriman seseorang, jika orang lain belum selamat dari kejahatan lidah (omongan) dan tangannya (tindakannya).

Mari kita fungsikan agama benar-benar untuk menyelamatkan nyawa/jiwa, dan kita fungsikan negara untuk memberikan kepastian keselamatan jiwa bagi segenap warganya. []

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