Ust. Agusman Armansyah (alumnus Universitas AL-Azhar Kairo, Mesir, Direktur Akademik Yayasan Pendidikan Murah Hati, Cibubur Bekasi)

Ilustrasi (karebaindonesia.id)

karebaindonesia.id – Dan jika mereka condong kepada perdamaian, maka condong- lah kepadanya dan bertawakal-lah kepada Allah. Sesungguh- nya Allah Maha Mendengar dan Maha Mengetahui (QS. Al- Anfâl: 61).

Ayat Al-Quran di atas menjelaskan kepada kita tentang pentingnya perdamaian dalam kehidupan. Berdasarkan ayat Al-Quran tersebut, perdamaian harus senantiasa diperjuangkan dan dikedepankan ketimbang pilihan-pilihan hidup yang lain, baik dalam keadaan normal maupun dalam ke adaan perang.
Dalam kitab tafsir Mafâtîh Al-Ghaîb, Imam Ar-Razi menyebutkan bahwa ayat ini turun ketika perang Badar terjadi antara umat Islam dengan orang-orang kafir Quraisy. Perang Badar adalah perang pertama dalam sejarah umat Islam. Perang ini terjadi dengan kekuatan yang tidak seimbang antara kedua belah pihak. Orang-orang Islam yang terlibat dalam perang ini hanya berjumlah 313 orang. Sedangkan orang-orang kafir Quraisy berjumlah 1.000 orang. Namu kekuasaan Allah telah menjadi kekuatan maha dahsyat yang tak terlihat oleh siapa pun, hingga umat Islam mencapai kemenangan gemilang dalam peperangan ini.
Dari sebab turunnya ayat di atas menjadi jelas, betapa perdamaian sangat ditekankan dalam Islam. Dalam keadaan perang pun Islam tetap mengedepankan dan mengupaya kan tegaknya perdamaian. Imam Ali bin Abi Thalib pernah menceritakan suatu Hadis Nabi Muhammad SAW terkait dengan ajaran perdamaian dalam Islam.

Rasulullah SAW bersabda:

Sesungguhnya akan terjadi banyak perbedaan setelah Aku (meninggal). Bila Engkau mampu mewujudkan perdamaian, maka lakukanlah.

Apa yang dilakukan oleh Nabi Muhammad SAW pada masa Hudaibiyah (am al-hudaybiyyah) patut dijadikan teladan oleh segenap umat Islam dalam mengupayakan perdamaian. Yaitu ketika orang-orang kafir Quraisy meminta berdamai dengan Nabi Muhammad SAW dan semua pengikutnya.
Tak hanya itu, orang-orang Quraisy juga meminta Nabi Muhammad SAW agar mengurungkan niatnya untuk mengunjungi kota Mekah, kota suci sekaligus tempat kelahiran Nabi Muhammad SAW sebelum beliau hijrah ke Madinah. Padahal, saat itu Nabi Muhammad SAW beserta para sahabatnya sudah dalam keadaan siap seratus persen untuk melakukan kunjungan atau umrah ke Kota Suci tersebut. Sebagai imbalannya, orang-orang Quraiys berjanji tidak akan mengganggu umat Islam kembali bila berkunjung ke kota Mekah setelah masa Hudaibyah.
Nabi Muhammad SAW sepakat dengan ajakan perdamaian di atas dan memilih mengurungkan niat sucinya tersebut. Sejumlah sahabat Nabi seperti sahabat Umar bin Khattab terperangah menyaksikan keputusan bijak yang diambil oleh Nabi Muhammad SAW. Tapi keputusan ini sepintas merugikan beliau beserta pengikutnya.

Nabi Muhammad SAW kemudian meyakinkan para sahabatnya akan kebenaran dan kebijaksanaan dalam keputusan tersebut. Nabi Muhammad SAW juga meyakinkan para sahabat bahwa keputusan ini merupakan tuntunan Allah. Dan yang tak kalah pentingnya adalah, bahwa keputusan demi perdamaian tidak akan pernah salah atau merugikan.

Fenomena konflik dan kekerasan berbasis agama belakangan cukup mengkhawatirkan; dan ini terjadi hampir di semua kehidupan umat beragama, apa pun agamanya. Fenomena ini terjadi setidaknya karena dua hal utama. Pertama, adanya beberapa doktrin yang dipahami secara salah sehingga doktrin tersebut dijadikan sebagai legitimasi untuk melakukan tindakan kekerasan. Beberapa ajaran dianggap membolehkan tindakan kekerasan. Apalagi kekerasan tersebut dilakukan untuk menghakimi “mereka yang berbeda”.
Harus diakui, Islam juga mempunyai beberapa ajaran yang sering dikait-kaitkan dengan aksi-aksi keras seperti perang. Juga benar bahwa dalam Al-Quran dan Hadis terdapat beberapa ajaran tentang perang dan jihad.
Namun sungguh tidak benar bila diyakini bahwa ajaran- ajaran perang adalah satu-satunya doktrin dalam Islam. Sebagaimana juga tidak benar bila ajaran jihad hanya dipahami sebagai ajaran tentang angkat senjata ataupun aksi-aksi keras lainnya. Karena terdapat sekian ajaran tentang perdamaian yang dijadikan pilihan hidup. Sebagaimana juga terdapat makna jihad lain di luar aksi keras. Dan hampir semua ajaran jihad atau perang mempunyai latar belakang ataupun konteks yang dapat menjelaskan mengapa hal itu harus dilakukan. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa ajaran tentang perang dalam Islam harus dipahami secara tepat sesuai dengan konteks kesejarahannya.

Nabi Muhammad SAW bersabda, Allah memberikan pada kelembutan hal-hal yang tak diberikan kepada ke- kerasan.

Sesungguhnya Allah itu Maha Pengasih, mencintai sifat welas- asih, dan memberikan (banyak keistimewaan) yang tidak diberikan kepada sifat kejam atau kekerasan.

Hadis di atas hendak menegaskan bahwa perdamaian adalah yang pertama dan terutama. Dalam keadaan apa pun perdamaian harus senantiasa diperjuangkan dan ditegakkan. Karena hanya dalam damai manusia sebagai khalifah di muka bumi bisa menjalankan mandat dan kepercayaan Allah, yaitu untuk membangun kehidupan dan peradaban adi luhung.
Ada seorang sahabat yang bertanya kepada Nabi Muhammad SAW, “Islam seperti apa yang utama wahai Rasulullah?” Beliau menjawab, “Menyantuni makanan dan menyebarkan salam perdamaian, baik kepada orang yang engkau kenal atau yang tidak engkau kenal.”
Tentu saja, Nabi Muhammad SAW tidak hanya sedang menuntun umatnya agar membiasakan dan menghormati orang lain dengan ucapan assalâmualaikum yang bermakna: kedamaian untukmu. Lebih dari pada itu, Nabi Muhammad SAW hendak membangun kehidupan umat yang santun, peduli terhadap persoalan perdamaian dan berjuang demi tegaknya perdamaian. Jangankan dengan mereka yang sudah ketahuan titik perbedaannya (baik perbedaan agama atau suku), dengan mereka yang belum dikenal pun umat Islam dianjurkan untuk senantiasa berdamai, sebagaimana tuntunan Hadis di atas.
Dalam konteks ini, ajaran perdamaian sebagaimana terkandung dalam ayat Al-Quran di atas, anjuran menyebarkan

kata salam dan hakikat keutamaan Islam sebagaimana ditayakan oleh seorang sahabat dalam Hadis di atas mempunyai makna yang mendalam. Makna ini sangat penting demi terciptanya keberislaman yang utama bagi seorang muslim.
Secara kebahasaan, kata as-silm dalam ayat di atas, kata salâm, dan kata al-islâm berawal dari satu kata, yaitu sa-li- ma. Dalam kitab Lisânu Al-Arab disebutkan, kata ini bermakna as-salâmu (perdamaian), as-salâmatu (keselamatan) dan al-barâah (kebebasan), yakni tidak ada keterkaitan antara satu dengan yang lain, terutama dalam keburukan.
Dari sini dapat disimpulkan bahwa hakikat Islam yang utama (meminjam istilah seorang sahabat dalam pertanyaan di atas) adalah Islam yang menyebarkan perdamaian, memberikan keselamatan dan kebebasan kepada diri sendiri dan orang lain (al-barâah) untuk melakukan apa yang dianggap sebagai kebaikan. Dan inilah bagian dari ajaran inti dalam Islam. Karena kata al-Islâm sendiri berasal dari “rumpun kata” yang sama, yakni kata sa-li-ma.

Sebagai penutup, marilah kitamerefleksikan kembali bacaan dan amalan doa yang sangat dianjurkan dalam Islam, terutama di setiap selesai melakukan ibadah shalat. Yaitu doa yang berbunyi:

Wahai Tuhan, Engkau adalah perdamaian. Darimu perdamaian berasal dan kepada-Mu-lah perdamaian akan kembali. Maka, hidupkanlah kami dalam damai dan masukkanlah kami ke dalam surga-Mu yang tak lain adalah singgasana perdamaian, diberkati Engkau dan Maha Tinggi Engkau wahai Dzat Yang Agung dan Mulia.

Perdamaian adalah sifat Allah subhânahu wataâlâ, yang harus mewarnai tindak-tanduk keseharian kita. Betapa indahnya hidup ini jika diisi dengan kehidupan yang damai, baik dalam lingkup keluarga, organisasi, bangsa, maupun lingkup global. Mari kita jalani kita songsong kehidupan kita dengan damai.[]

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