Oleh Ust. Achmad Marzuki

Ilustrasi (karebaindonesia.id)

karebaindonesia.id – Tahukah kamu, siapa orang yang mendustakan agama? Adalah orang yang menerlantarkan anak yatim, dan tidaksungguh-sungguh memecahkan persoalan pangan orang miskin. Maka celakalah bagi orang-orang yang melaksanakan sembahyang, yaitu mereka yang lalai, pamer dan enggan menolong orang lain. (QS. Al-Mâ’ûn, 1- 4).

Ayat Al-Quran di atas menegaskan hal yang sangat penting dalam keberagamaan kita, yaitu pentingnya solidaritas sosial. Dalam perspektif Islam, solidaritas sosial adalah bagian dari ajaran yang paling pokok. Mengabaikan persoalan ini sama halnya dengan mendustakan agama, sebagaimana ditegaskan secara eksplisit dalam ayat tersebut.

Dalam Tafsîr At-Thabarî disebutkan bahwa ayat ini turun untuk menegaskan pentingnya solidaritas sosial, terutama bagi masyarakat lemah (dhu’afâ) dan yang dilemahkan (mustadh’afîn), seperti anak-anak yatim, kaum perempuan dan orang-orang miskin pada umumnya.Mereka merupakan bagian dari kelompok masyarakat yang sangat rentan terhadap bentuk-bentuk ketidakadilan, baik secara langsung maupun tidak langsung. Tidak sedikit dari hak-hak dasar mereka yang tidak terpenuhi, bahkan dilupakan. Seringkali mereka hanya dijadikan sebagai komoditas untuk kepentingan sesaat.

Muhammad Yunus, peraih nobel perdamaian, merupakan salah satu contoh terbaik dalam hal solidaritas sosial khususnya dalam rangka mengangkat harkat dan martabat orang-orang miskin. Ia menggalang para perempuan miskin agar bangkit dengan cara memberikan modal pinjaman lunak tanpa bunga.Menurut Yunus, cara tersebut telah mampu mengubah orang-orang yang selama ini miskin menjadi berdaya, sehingga mereka pun mampu bangkit dari keterpurukan.

Islam memberikan perhatian besar kepada yang kaum lemah atau yang diperlemah oleh pihak tertentu, seperti yang disinggung pada surat Al-Ma’un di atas. Begitu besarnya perhatian Islam, pihak yang menelantarkan anak-anak yatim dan tidak memberi makan orang-orang miskin disebut Al-Quran sebagai orang-orang yang mendustakan agama.

Dalam hal ini, kita perlu menumbuhkan solidaritas sosial yang ditandai dengan komitmen untuk membantu dan menyelamatkan mereka. Semua itu harus dilakukan agar kita tidak dicap Tuhan sebagai orang-orang yang telah mendustakan agama.
Untuk itu, Rasulullah SAW memberikan teladan yang sangat baik bagi kita semua, yaitu agar menjadikan kepedulian terhadap orang-orang miskin sebagai bagian penting dalam kehidupan ini. Beliau bersabda:

Ya Allah hidupkanlah aku dalam keadaan miskin dan matikanlah aku dalam keadaan miskin, dan kumpulkanlah aku pada Hari Kiamat nanti bersama orang-orang miskin. Kemudian Aisyah bertanya, “kenapa demikian wahai Rasulullah?” Beliau menjawab, karena mereka akan masuk surga sebelum orang-orang kaya kira-kira sekitar 40 kali musim gugur. Wahai Aisyah, jangan engkau menolak (tidak membantu) orang miskin (bantulah dia) walau hanya dengan separuh kurma. Wahai Aisyah cintailah orang miskin, dekati mereka, maka niscaya Allah akan mendekatimu pada hari kiamat nanti.

Hadis di atas menunjukkan, bahwa keberpihakan terhadap orang-orang miskin harus menjadi kesadaran yang mampu menggerakkan dan diwujudkan dalam kehidupan nyata. Siapa pun yang melihat orang-orang miskin hatinya akan otomatis tergerak untuk mengulurkan tangan. Sebab, hal tersebut merupakan perangai agung dari Baginda Rasulullah SAW, yang keseluruhan hidupnya diperuntukkan untuk membantu orang-orang miskin. Bahkan, beliau rela untuk tidak makan beberapa hari, sehingga umatnya mendapatkan makanan.

Solidaritas sosial harus ditunjukkan dan dicontohkan oleh para pemimpin, karena mereka mempunyai kesempatan dan kemampuan untuk melakukan penyelamatan. Solidaritas sosial yang dilakukan oleh pemimpin akan memberikan dampak yang lebih luas dibanding solidaritas yang dilakukan oleh perseorangan.Apalagi dalam konteks berbangsa dan bernegara, yang mana di dalam konstitusi sudah terang-menderang, bahwa fakir-miskin dilindungi oleh negara. Karena itu, pemimpin mempunyai tanggungjawab besar untuk menunjukkan kepedulian kepada mereka.

Pada hakikatnya persoalan solidaritas sosial menyangkut persoalan budaya. Lemahnya solidaritas sosial semata-mata karena kita belum mampu membangun budaya yang mampu menopang kebersamaan dan kepedulian terhadap mereka yang lemah. Apalagi di tengah gempuran budaya konsumerisme, yang mana kita cenderung mementingkan diri sendiri daripada orang lain.Maka dari itu, menjadikan nilai-nilai keislaman sebagai sumber inspirasi untuk membangun solidaritas sosial sangatlah mendesak untuk dilakukan, terutama dalam rangka menjadikan Islam sebagai agama yang membebaskan dari berbagai belenggu ketidakadilan sosial.

Dalam hal itu, salah satu ajaran yang sangat sederhana, tetapi muatannya sangat berdampak bagi kehidupan sosial, yaitu perintah Nabi Muhammad SAW soal pentingnya memberi. Beliau bersabda:Tangan yang di atas lebih baik dari pada tangan yang di bawah.

Hadis tersebut hendak memberikan penjelasan, bahwa akhlak dan budaya seorang muslim adalah memberi, bukan meminta. Sebab memberi lebih mulia dan lebih diutamakan daripada meminta. Ini berarti, menjadi seorang muslim bukanlah meminta-minta, melainkan justru sebisa mungkin menolong orang lain.

Bahkan dalam Hadis lain disebutkan, solidaritas sosial merupakan jantung keimanan itu sendiri. Seseorang akan dianggap beriman kepada Allah dan Hari Akhir jika ia memuliakan tetangga dan tamu.

Hadis tersebut hendak menjelaskan, bahwa solidaritas sosial harus dimulai dari lingkungan terdekat, baik mereka yang dikenal maupun tidak dikenal. Sebab sebagai seorang muslim yang mempunyai komitmen tinggi untuk menegakkan nilai-nilai keislaman, kita dituntut menjadikan solidaritas sosial sebagai perangai yang harus dibuktikan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Islam bukanlah ajaran yang melangit, akan tetapi ajaran yang harus diterjemahkan dalam kehidupan nyata.

Dalam hal ini, budaya kesukarelaan dan kedermawanan harus menjadi basis dalam relasi Solidaritas sosial merupakan jantung dari toleransi. Sebab toleransi tidak akan bermakna apa-apa, jika di dalamnya tidak ada spirit “memberi” dan “melayani”, yang mana keduanya merupakan hakikat dari ajaran Islam.

Ketika kita membantu seseorang, hal tersebut semata-mata bukan karena pihak yang dibantu merupakan saudara dan keluarga kita, tetapi karena semata-mata mereka adalah manusia, ciptaan Allah yang harus dilindungi dan diberi pertolongan. Betapa indahnya kehidupan ini jikalau solidaritas menjadi titik-tolak dalam membangun keharmonisan.

Dengan demikian, solidaritas sosial harus menjadi pijakan kita dalam berbangsa, bernegara dan beragama. Para Nabi terdahulu telah membuktikan betapa mereka menjadikan solidaritas sosial sebagai bagian terpenting dalam agama mereka. Dan tugas kita saat ini, yaitu menjadikan ajaran tersebut sebagai tali pengikat yang akan menjadikan kita sebagai umat yang benar-benar mempunyai komitmen untuk membela mereka yang lemah.[]

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