sumber : Google

Karebaindonesia.id – Menjelang hari raya Idul Fitri 1442 Hijriah. Konflik antara Palestina dengan Israel kembali memanas

Bermula dari upaya Israel menggusur paksa warga Palestina yang bermukim di Sheikh Jarrah, Yerusalem Timur, warga pemukiman tersebut pun merespons dengan unjuk rasa. Namun dibalas dengan blokade oleh polisi Israel dan ancaman pengusiran kepada siapapun yang terlibat unjuk rasa.

Aksi unjuk rasa direspons Israel dengan memasang blokade polisi dan melakukan pengusiran. Ketegangan semakin meningkat pasca-kerusuhan yang terjadi di Masjid Al Aqsa, Jumat (7/5/2021) malam.

Saaat itu polisi Israel membubarkan warga Palestina yang tengah melaksanakan shalat tarawih. Berikutnya, pada Senin (10/5/2021), faksi Hamas di Jalur Gaza menembakkan roket ke arah Tel Aviv dan sejumlah wilayah Israel lainnya, sebagai respons atas tindakan Israel di Yerusalem.

Serangan roket Hamas itu dibalas Israel dengan membombardir Jalur Gaza menggunakan jet tempur, yang mengakibatkan kerusakan bangunan dan korban jiwa. Israel hingga Kamis (13/5/2021) masih melakukan serangan udara ke Gaza.

Sumber : Google

Bagaimana sebenarnya sejarah konflik Israel dan Palestina?
Mengutip histori, segalanya bermula dari kelahiran gerakan zionis pada akhir abad XIX di kalangan Yahudi yang tinggal di wilayah Kekaisaran Rusia.P ada waktu itu, kaum Yahudi di Kekaisaran Rusia mendambakan berdirinya sebuah negara Yahudi, di mana mereka bisa tinggal dengan damai tanpa persekusi.

Pada 1896, Theodor Herzl, seorang jurnalis Yahudi-Austria merilis pamflet berjudul “Negara Yahudi”. Menurut Theodor Herzl, berdirinya negara Yahudi adalah satu-satunya cara untuk melindungi kaum Yahudi dari persekusi dan anti-Semitisme. Herzl kemudian menjadi pemimpin gerakan Zionisme dan menggelar Kongres Zionis pertama di Swiss pada 1897.

Gerakan zionisme tidak langsung memilih Palestina sebagai tempat berdirinya negara Yahudi. Sejumlah lokasi sempat dipertimbangkan seperti Uganda dan Argentina.

Namun, kaum Zionis akhirnya memilih Palestina berdasarkan keyakinan bahwa tanah tersebut adalah Tanah Suci yang dijanjikan bagi bangsa Yahudi oleh Tuhan.

Pasca-keruntuhan Kesultanan Ottoman (1914), Kerajaan Inggris mengambil alih kekuasaan atas tanah Palestina, sebagai bagian dari perjanjian Sykes-Picot (1916).

Perjanjian tersebut merupakan kesepakatan antara imperium Inggris dan Perancis, yang sepakat untuk membagi wilayah Timur Tengah berdasarkan kepentingan mereka.

Pada 1917, sebelum dimulainya Mandat Inggris (1920-1947) atas Palestina, Inggris mengeluarkan Deklarasi Balfour.M elalui deklarasi tersebut, Inggris berjanji akan memberikan sebuah “rumah” bagi kaum Yahudi di tanah Palestina.

Mulai 1919, dengan dibantu Inggris, gelombang demi gelombang imigran Yahudi mulai memasuki tanah Palestina. Antara 1922 dan 1935, populasi Yahudi di Palestina meningkat dari semula 9 persen menjadi hampir 27 persen dari total populasi.

Sebelumnya, pada 1880 sudah ada komunitas Yahudi yang tinggal di Palestina. Mereka dikenal dengan sebutan Yishnuv dan menyumbang tiga persen dari total populasi Palestina. Berkebalikan dengan kaum Yahudi Zionis yang masuk ke Palestina, kaum Yahudi Yishnuv tidak pernah menginginkan berdirinya negara Yahudi di Palestina.

Masjid Al Aqsa di Yerusalem

Terus bertambahnya kaum Yahudi yang memasuki Palestina, membuat warga Palestina pada tahun 1936 melancarkan pemberontakan terhadap Inggris yang mendukung terciptanya koloni Zionis di Tanah Air mereka.

Pemberontakan pertama terjadi di Timur Tengah Inggris menghancurkan pemberontakan yang berlangsung hingga 1939 itu. Mereka menghancurkan sedikitnya 2.000 rumah warga Palestina, dan memasukkan 9.000 warga Palestina ke kamp konsentrasi, di mana mereka diinterogasi dan disiksa.

Pasca-pemberontakan itu, pemerintah Inggris, khawatir akan meletusnya kekerasan antara Palestina dan Zionis. Inggris kemudian mencoba membatasi imigrasi kaum Yahudi Eropa menuju Palestina.

Pada 1944, beberapa kelompok bersenjata Zionis menyatakan perang terhadap Inggris karena mencoba membatasi imigrasi Yahudi ke Palestina, sedangkan saat itu kaum Yahudi tengah mencoba melarikan diri dari Holocaust. Organisasi paramiliter Zionis melancarkan sejumlah serangan terhadap Inggris.

Serangan paling terkenal adalah pemboman King David Hotel pada 1946, yang menewaskan 91 orang. Pada awal 1947, pemerintah Inggris akhirnya mengakui bahwa mereka telah melakukan kesalahan dalam menangani permasalahan di Palestina.

Inggris kemudian menyerahkan masalah Palestina kepada Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa (PBB) dan mengakhiri proyek kolonialnya di sana. Pada 29 November 1947, PBB mengadopsi Resolusi 181, yang merekomendasikan pembagian Palestina menjadi dua negara, yakni negara Yahudi dan Palestina.

Saat itu, kaum Yahudi di Palestina merupakan sepertiga dari populasi dan memiliki kurang dari enam persen dari total luas tanah. Namun, di bawah rencana pembagian PBB, mereka dialokasikan 55 persen dari tanah, meliputi banyak kota utama dan garis pantai penting dari Haifa ke Jaffa.

Pembagian yang tidak seimbang itu membuat bangsa Palestina menolak proposal dari PBB. Tidak lama setelah pengadopsian Resolusi 181 oleh PBB, pecah perang antara bangsa Palestina dengan kaum Zionis Israel.

NEGARA ISRAEL BERDIRI
Melansir History, Pada 14 Mei 1948, di Tel Aviv, Ketua Badan Yahudi David Ben-Gurion memproklamasikan berdirinya Negara Israel. Dalam proklamasi itu, Ben-Gurion juga menjadi perdana menteri pertama Israel.

Pada saat bersamaan, gemuruh senjata terdengar dari pertempuran yang pecah antara Zionis Israel dengan bangsa Palestina yang dibantu negara-negara Arab.

Menyusul proklamasi itu, gabungan negara-negara Arab mulai dari Mesir, Yordania, Suriah, Lebanon, dan Irak, menggempur Zionis Israel. Meski demikian, pasukan paramiliter Zionis Israel yang telah dilatih oleh militer Inggris, serta berpartisipasi dalam Perang Dunia II, mampu membuktikan ketangguhannya.

Pada 1949, gencatan senjata yang ditengahi oleh PBB membuat Negara Israel memiliki kendali permanen atas wilayah yang ditaklukkan itu.

Selama perang, ratusan ribu bangsa Palestina meninggalkan Tanah Air mereka karena upaya pembersihan etnis yang dilakukan kaum Zionis Israel. Dalam upaya merebut kembali Palestina, pada 1967, gabungan negara-negara Arab kembali menyerang Israel.

Namun, dalam perang yang terkenal dengan sebutan Perang Enam Hari itu, Israel justru berhasil memperluas wilayahnya dengan mencaplok wilayah Yordania, Mesir, Suriah, Kota Tua Yerusalem, Semenanjung Sinai, Tepi Barat, Jalur Gaza, dan Dataran Tinggi Golan.

Pada 1979, Israel dan Mesir menandatangani perjanjian perdamaian bersejarah, di mana Israel mengembalikan Sinai dengan imbalan pengakuan dan perdamaian Mesir.

Israel dan Organisasi Pembebasan Palestina (PLO) kemudian menandatangani perjanjian perdamaian besar pada tahun 1993, yang menyepakati berdirinya pemerintahan Palestina secara bertahap di Tepi Barat dan Jalur Gaza.

Namun, proses perdamaian Israel-Palestina berjalan lambat, dan pada tahun 2000 hingga sekarang, pertempuran demi pertempuran terus terjadi di Palestina.

Artikel ini telah tayang di Kompas.com dengan judul “Menilik Akar Konflik Palestina-Israel”.

Penulis : Jawahir Gustav Rizal

551 thoughts on “Menilik Awal Mula Konflik Israel Palestina: dari Gelombang Imigran Zionis Yahudi, hingga Jalan Panjang Perdamaian”
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