Oleh: Andi Novriansyah Saputra, S.Ag (Alumni S1 UIN Alauddin Makassar, Content Creator)

Sumber Gambar: Google(PBB)

Akhir-akhir ini dunia kembali heboh dengan konflik berkepanjangan antara Palestina dan Israel yang setiap harinya memakan korban jiwa. Akibat dari lamanya konflik ini berlangsung, sehingga banyak diantara kita yang mulai mengaitkannya dengan simbol agama walau pada dasarnya bermula dari kepentingan wilayah.

Perdebatan antar keyakinan bahkan ideologi tidak dapat terhindarkan, belum lagi jika orag-orang yang berpengaruh dalam suatu golongan tertentu mengambil sikap yang akan memancing ego massa yang lebih banyak. Untuk itu ketegasan Perserikatan Bangsa Bangsa (PBB) diperlukan dalam menjalankan collective security (Pengamanan kolektif).

Selama berlangsungnya konflik Palestina-Israel, setidaknya PBB sudah beberapa kali melakukan upaya perdamaian bagi kedua negara. Ada beberapa resolusi yang telah dikemukakan oleh PBB untuk mempengaruhi konflik negara-negara Timur-Tengah.

Dewan Keamanan PBB yang memiliki tanggung jawab untuk merawat perdamaian dan keamanan Internasional sesuai mandat Piagam PBB, juga terus mengupayakan rencana diplomatik yang ditujukan untuk penyelesaian konflik. Keterlibatan DK PBB telah dimulai sejak tahun 1947, di mana pemisahan Pelstina dari negara Yahudi dan negara Arab melalui resolusi 181.

Hingga kemarin saat memuncak kembali konflik antara Palestina dan Israel, DK PBB terus mengupayakan pendekatan perdamaian karena telah menghasilkan kerugian yang tidak sedikit dari kedua belah pihak.

Perseteruan selama kurang lebih sebelas hari itu kemudian berakhir dengan gencatan senjata yang telah disepakati oleh kelompok militer Hamas dan pasukan Zionist Israel.

PBB pun meminta semua pihak untuk mematuhi keputusan tersebut dan meminta agar melakukan pengiriman bantuan kemanusiaan kepada penduduk sipil Palestina di Jalur Gaza. Ini hanyalah satu dari sekian banyak konflik Internasional yang harus ditangani dengan serius oleh PBB dalam memelihara perdamaian dunia.

Tanggal 29 Mei adalah momen yang telah ditetapkan secara resmi untuk menghargai jasa para pasukan operasi penjaga perdamaian PBB, yang disebut sebagai hari Internasional Penjaga Perdamaian Perserikatan Bangsa Bangsa.

Memaknai Perdamaian

Hari Internasional Penjaga Perdamaian PBB dicetutaskan dalam Resolusi Majelis Umum PBB pada 11 Desember 2002, setelah menerima permintaan resmi dari Asosiasi Penjaga Perdamaian sekaligus pemerintah Ukraina. Tanggal 29 Mei dipilih untuk menyesuaikan dengan hari pembentukan Organisasi Pengawas Gencatan Senjata PBB pada tahun 1948.

Pembentukan organisasi tersebut juga menandakan misi pertama penjaga perdamaian PBB saat memantau gencatan senjata usai perang Arab-Israel. Kekuatan militer Dewan Keamanan PBB bertanggung jawab pada operasi pemeliharaan dan perdamaian dengan menggunakan observer dan pasukan pemelihara perdamaian.

Tanggung jawab DK PBB telah tertulis jelas dalam Piagam PBB yang secara garis besar adalah menyelesaikan persengketaan internasional secara damai (James Barros:1990). Walaupun memiliki tujuan yang mulia, tidak lantas membuat keputusan-keputusan DK PBB ditaati oleh negara-negara yang sedang berkonflik.

Hal ini sangat bisa terjadi karena mekanisme pendekatan yang digunakan adalah operasi pemeliharaan perdamaian (peace-keeping operation) yang bersikap tidak terlalu memaksa dan menyerahkan setiap keputusan akhir pada negara yang sedang bersengketa.

Posisi dari DK PBB hanya pada tataran mediator, jika ruang komunikasi telah dipersilahkan maka setiap solusi, pertimbangan dan argumentasi mengarah pada terwujudnya perdamaian melalui tindakan menghentikan situasi konflik (peace making).Cara PBB membangun operasi perdamaian sejalan dengan konsep teori Liberalisme.

Teori yang diperkenalkan oleh Immanuel Kant dalam esainya berjudul Perpetual Peace pada tahun 1795, menekankan pada tindakan kooperatif dan damai agar tujuan dapat tercapai tanpa menimbulkan konflik. Menciptakan perdamaian tanpa konflik harus memperhatikan nilai-nilai kemanusiaan (humanisme).

Ahmad Syafii Maarif adalah salah satu tokoh bangsa yang begitu fokus menyerukan keadilan humanisme untuk mewujudkan perdamaian dalam negeri. Bagi beliau, jika keadilan telah dimiliki oleh seseorang secara individu akan dengan mudah menciptakan kedamaian bersama dengan manusia lainnya.Perbedaan-perbedaan pada manusia bukan untuk ditakuti yang dapat memunculkan konflik, melainkan dapat menjadi kekayaan yang menggairahkan pemahaman visi dan pemahaman manusia tentang realitas.

Menghargai perbedaan dapat menciptakan hubungan persaudaraan universal dan kedamaian yang solid karena mengedepankan sikap toleran pada sesama.Gagasan humanisme Ahmad Syafii Maarif memang berangkat dari konflik identitas yang ada di Indonesia. Namun bukan berarti tidak sesuai dengan peace-keeping operation yang sedang DK PBB upayakan pada konflik sengketa internasional saat ini.

Pasukan perdamaian dunia ini harus berani melakukan pendekatan persuasi pada setiap kelompok kepentingan atau bagian dari gerbong yang ikut berperang. Menawarkan regulasi yang dapat menghantarkan antar pihak yang bertikai pada sebuah kesimpulan perdamaian tanpa melalui jalur sengketa.

Momen ini tentu akan menguntungkan PBB untuk membungkam pihak yang terus mempertanyakan kredibilitas dan keadilan yang dipegang oleh organisasi internasional tersebut. Semoga saja suasana damai akan meliputi seluruh negera di bumi ini, sebelum kiamat tiba.Selamat Hari Internasional Penjaga Perdamaian Perserikatan Bangsa Bangsa.

By Abd Jafar

Reporter Kareba Indonesia

424 thoughts on “Menjernihkan Kembali Tugas Penjaga Perdamaian PBB”
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