karebaindonesia.id – Pakar Hukum Tata Negara Universitas Muslim Indonesia Makassar Dr. Fahri Bachmid, S.H., M.H. menilai keputusan Presiden Jokowi membubarkan 18 lembaga negara sebagai langkah yang tepat dan bermanfaat. Kebijakan pembubaran 18 lembaga negara tersebut, dijelaskan Fahri Bachmid merupakan sebuah terobosan kebijakan negara yang sangat konstruktif serta solutif dalam mengurai salah satu problem ketatanegaraan yang dialami bangsa selama ini.

“Keputusan presiden terhadap pembubaran 18 lembaga negara sangatlah tepat jika ditinjau dari aspek konstitusi dan kajian hukum tata negara secara mendalam, komprehensif dan substantif, untuk menata kewenangan yang overlapping (tumpang-tindih) dan beban anggaran negara. Jadi keputusan itu menjadi ‘Moment of Truth’ penataan inflasi lembaga negara Independen,” ujar Fahri Bachmid dalam keterangan tertulisnya pada Rabu, 15 Juli 2020.

Menurut Fahri Bachmid, keputusan Presiden Jokowi dalam pembubaran lembaga negara harus dijadikan sebagai “Moment of Truth” dalam menata serta mengkonsolidir kelembagaan negara secara baik, tepat, presisi, dan proporsional sesuai konstitusi dan perundang-undangan yang berlaku. Dan untuk kepentingan itu, maka presiden wajib membutuhkan basis legitimasi yuridis yang kuat dan terukur. Dan opsi hukum yang dapat ditempuh adalah presiden menyiapkan RUU Tentang Pembubaran Kelembagaan Negara serta mengatur segala akibat hukumnya, dan sekaligus dengan dasar hukum itu presiden diperlengkapi dengan instrumen kewenangan untuk mengatur dan menata kelembagaan negara kedepannya.

“Artinya jika presiden membubarkan lembaga negara yang pembentukannya lewat UU, maka tentunya harus melalui mekanisme ketatanegaraan dengan melibatkan DPR untuk membahasnya. Dan jika Lembaga, Badan atau Komisi dengan dasar hukum pembentukannya adalah setingkat peraturan perundang-undangan dibawah UU, maka cukup presiden dengan kekuasaanya berdasarkan UUD 1945 serta berdasarkan kajian hukum dan ketatanegaraan terkait rancang bangun desain kelembagaannya dapat membubarkan serta mengaturnya. Itu adalah pilihan politik hukum yang dapat digunakan presiden sebagai kepala negara,” tandas Fahri Bachmid lebih lanjut.

Secara teknis ketatanegaraan, Fahri Bachmid mengatakan presiden Jokowi sudah pernah melakukan pembubaran sekitar 23 lembaga atau badan kenegaraan sejak menjabat menjadi presiden dari tahun 2014 silam. Karenanya, rencana pembubaran 18 lembaga atau badan kenegaraan dalam waktu dekat ini bukanlah persoalan rumit dan kompleks, termasuk bagaimana mengatur dampak serta alokasi ASN/PNS yang lembaganya dilikuidasi untuk disalurkan kepada lembaga “existing” sebagaimana mestinya.

Secara empiris, problem inflasi lembaga negara idependen atau kehadiran Lembaga, Komisi dan Badan Kenegaraan ini mengalami ekspansi secara signifikan dikarenakan setiap muncul masalah nasional atau kebijakan yang membentuk peraturan perundang-undangan untuk urusan tertentu oleh DPR dan Presiden, maka dimunculkan suatu lembaga negara baru tanpa adanya “blue print” yang jelas tentang hakikat serta konsep dasar pembentukan lembaga negara tersebut.

“Salah satu bentuk perkembangan teori dan praktik hukum tata negara modern yang banyak diperdebatkan adalah hadirnya organ negara yang dikenal dengan ‘komisi negara’ atau ‘lembaga negara independen’ (state auxiliary bodies‘ atau ‘state auxiliary agencies‘). Dalam muara perdebatan ini, hadirnya komisi negara menjadi semacam keniscayaan dalam menjawab kebutuhan praktik ketatanegaraan. Selain itu, kehadiran komisi negara juga didorong oleh fakta, dimana munculnya krisis kepercayaan terhadap lembaga-lembaga negara konvensional. Dengan demikian, Lembaga, Badan atau Komisi negara diproduksi secara tidak terkendali,” pungkasnya.

Lebih lanjut, Fahri Bachmid menambahkan, setelah Era Reformasi 1998, lembaga negara independen mulai mendapatkan tempat dan eksistensi. Karena pada umumnya kinerja lembaga konvensional dianggap tidak memadai. Namun secara teoritik pertumbuhan lembaga negara independen yang tidak terkendali itu menimbulkan problem teknis ketatanegaraan dan pemerintahan, seperti “overlapping” kewenangan serta membebani keuangan negara. Menurut Fahri Bachmid, secara akademis, berbagai Lembaga, Komisi, atau Badan Kenegaraan itu lahir tanpa konstruksi desain serta konsep ketatanegaraan yang komprehensif, serta pola pengaturan yang terukur, mulai dari dasar hukum, nomenklatur, bentuk, sistem rekrutmen serta relasi hubungan antar organ-organ kelembagaan negara menjadi rancu dan bias.

“Dari rangkaian keseluruhan permasalahan itu sedikit banyak telah berkontribusi atas terjadinya inflasi lembaga negara independen, badan, atau komisi saat ini, sehingga dengan demikian menjadi penting serta bermanfaat jika pemerintah mulai memikirkan serta mengambil peran untuk melakukan konsolidasi serta menata kembali lembaga negara independen dalam kerangka organisasi negara dalam bingkai penguatan sistem pemerintahan presidensial,” tambah Fahri Bachmid.

Fahri mengatakan, eksistensi kelembagaan lembaga negara dapat ditelusuri dari pola pengaturan dengan beragam dasar hukum pembentukannya, mulai dari dasar pembentukan dengan derajat hukum pada level konstitusi (UUD 1945) seperti Komisi Yudisial (KY) dan KPU, maupun pengaturan dengan dasar hukum UU seperti KOMNAS HAM, KPK, KPI, ORI dan Dewan Pers. Sementara itu, ada juga yang diatur dengan mantel hukum berupa Peraturan Pemerintah seperti PPATK, Komnas Perempuan serta KPAI dan lain-lain.

Berdasarkan data empiris terkait keberadaan lembaga-lembaga tersebut, maka dapat dikelompokkan dalam dua potret kepemerintahan: Pertama, Lembaga, Badan atau Komisi yang tergolong ke dalam Lembaga Negara Non-struktural yang terdiri dari puluhan Badan, Komisi, Dewan, Lembaga, Komite, Komisi, Konsil, dan lain-lain. Kedua, yang tergolong ke dalam Lembaga Pemerintah Non-Departemen terdiri dari puluhan Lembaga/Badan, mulai dari Lembaga Administrasi Negara sampai dengan Badan Narkotika Nasional.

“Saatnya presiden mengambil peran konstitusional yang besar ini sebagai negarawan untuk melakukan konsolidasi sebagai sebuah upaya serta urgensi penataan lembaga negara independen.” Tutup Fahri Bachmid menyimpulkan.[]

By Kareba Indonesia

Pemimpin Redaksi Kareba Indonesia

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