Karebaindonesia.id – Keputusan Mahkamah Konstitusi (MK) untuk tidak menerima uji materi Pasal 10 UU No. 39 Tahun 2008 tentang Kementerian Negara terkait konstitusionalitas jabatan wakil menteri (Wamen) yang dapat diangkat oleh Presiden sesuai kebutuhan adalah final.

MK kemudian memutuskan agar seluruh Wamen yang diangkat Presiden RI tidak boleh merangkap jabatan, sehingga tugas dan fungsinya dapat dilaksanakan secara maksimal untuk membantu menteri dalam membangun bangsa dan negara.

Menurut Pakar Hukum Tata Negara Universitas Muslim Indonesia (UMI) Makassar, Fahri Bachmid, menjelaskan bahwa pernyataan Staf Khusus Presiden Bidang Hukum mengenai Putusan MK terkait larangan rangkap jabatan Wamen hanyalah pendapat MK dan tidak mengikat adalah pandangan yang kurang cermat, kurang tepat, serta bias yang diucapkan oleh seorang staf khusus presiden bidang hukum.

Fahri Bachmid memandang bahwa pernyataan Stafsus kurang tepat dan tidak komprehensif dalam membaca dan memahami hakikat putusan MK, dalam konteks bagaimana membangun eksplanasi filsafat, teoritis dan praktis mengenai sifat dan kekuatan mengikat pertimbangan hukum putusan MK, karena Staf Khusus Presiden hanya melihat putusan MK hanya sekadar pada amarnya saja, secara sempit dan teknis, sehingga tidak utuh dalam memahami pesan konstitusional yang lebih substantif serta kaidah yang terdapat dalam tafsir hakim MK itu secara prospektif, berkaitan dengan larangan rangkap jabatan oleh Wamen dalam struktur kekuasaan pemerintahan negara.

Menurutnya, dalam pertimbangan putusan MK telah menegaskan bahwa Wamen adalah pejabat negara. Karena itu, Wamen tidak boleh rangkap jabatan baik sebagai komisaris BUMN atau jabatan lain sebagaimana larangan rangkap jabatan yang berlaku bagi menteri seperti diatur dalam UU Kementerian Negara.

“Artinya hakim MK telah melakukan tafsir secara otoritatif atas permasalahan tersebut, dengan demikian menjadi wajib untuk presiden melaksanakan putusan itu sebagaimana mestinya, sesuai mandat konstitusional yang dikirimkan oleh MK dalam putusan ‘a quo’ itu tanpa ada pengecualian,” tegasnya saat diwawancarai para wartawan pada Senin, 7 September 2020 kemarin.

Fahri Bachmid merincikan bahwa sejak diputuskan MK pada Kamis, 27 Agustus 2020 lalu, maka secara prospektif, Presiden dan/atau Menteri BUMN wajib segera mencopot Posisi Komisaris di BUMN yang diduduki oleh para Wamen, agar mereka fokus bekerja membantu Menteri dalam menjalankan tugas-tugas konstitusionalnya sesuai putusan MK.

Dalam pandangannya bahwa jabatan Wamen tetap dianggap konstitusional sebagaimana termuat dalam Putusan MK No. 79/PUU-IX/2011, tetapi dalam pertimbangan hukumnya, MK melarang Wamen merangkap jabatan lain sebagaimana ketentuan larangan yang berlaku pada menteri.

Lanjutnya, dalam putusan itu, MK memutuskan bahwa para pemohon tidak memiliki kedudukan hukum (legal standing) dalam mengajukan permohonan “a quo”, dan dalam Pokok permohonan para pemohon tidak beralasan menurut hukum, serta Amar putusan mengadili, menyatakan permohonan para pemohon tidak dapat diterima. Hal demikian berdasar pada Putusan MK Nomor : 80/PUU-XVII/2019 yang dibacakan pada tanggal 27 Agustus 2020 lalu.

Berangkat dari hal itu, berdasarkan ketentuan Pasal 10 UU RI No. 23 Tahun 2008 tentang Kementerian Negara menyebutkan, “Dalam hal terdapat beban kerja yang membutuhkan penanganan secara khusus, Presiden dapat mengangkat wakil menteri pada Kementerian tertentu”.

“Mahkamah berpendapat pengangkatan Wakil Menteri boleh dilakukan oleh Presiden, terlepas diatur atau tidak diatur dalam UU Kementerian Negara. Sebab, Presiden merupakan pemegang kekuasaan pemerintahan menurut UUD NRI Tahun 1945. Mengenai kedudukan Wakil Menteri, Mahkamah telah menyatakan pendiriannya sebagaimana tertuang dalam Putusan MK Nomor 79/PUU-IX/2011 dengan amar putusan mengabulkan permohonan pemohon untuk sebagian,” tegas Fahri Bachmid lebih lanjut.

Menurutnya, MK dalam Ketentuan Pasal 10 UU Kementerian Negara tidak bertentangan dengan UUD 1945, dan tidak mengandung persoalan konstitusionalitas. Mahkamah menegaskan bahwa persoalan konstitusionalitas norma Pasal 10 UU Kementerian Negara telah selesai dan tidak terdapat alasan baru yang dapat mengubah pendirian MK yang dimaksud. Karena itu, berkenaan dengan dalil-dalil Pemohon mengenai inkonstitusionalitas Pasal 10 UU No. 39 Tahun 2008 tidak relevan lagi untuk dipertimbangkan.

Tambahnya secara mendalam menyebutkan bahwa pertimbangan hukum MK sebagaimana terdapat pada halaman 97 putusan tersebut, MK memandang penting untuk menegaskan fakta yang dikemukakan para pemohon mengenai tidak adanya larangan jabatan Wakil Menteri, yang mengakibatkan Wakil Menteri dapat merangkap sebagai komisaris atau direksi pada perusahaan negara atau swasta.

“Terhadap fakta demikian, sekalipun wakil menteri membantu menteri dalam memimpin pelaksanaan tugas kementerian, oleh karena pengangkatan dan pemberhentian Wakil Menteri merupakan hak prerogatif Presiden. Sebagaimana halnya pengangkatan dan pemberhentian Menteri, maka Wakil Menteri haruslah ditempatkan pula sebagai pejabat sebagaimana status yang diberikan kepada Menteri,” tegasnya lagi.

Dia pun mengartikan bahwa seluruh larangan rangkap jabatan yang berlaku bagi Menteri sebagaimana diatur dalam ketentuan Pasal 23 UU No. 39/2008 tentang Kementerian Negara berlaku pula bagi Wakil Menteri. Pemberlakuan demikian dimaksudkan agar wakil menteri fokus pada beban kerja yang memerlukan penanganan secara khusus dikementeriannya sebagai alasan perlunya diangkat wakil menteri di kementerian tertentu.

Tambahnya, secara konstitusional pertimbangan hukum yang terdapat dalam putusan MK adalah mengikat. Karena, hal tersebut berangkat dari penalaran hakim konstitusi tentang proses penafsiran atas fakta-fakta dan hukum dalam fungsi sebagai pengawal dan penafsir konstitusi (ultimate interpreter).

“Dengan demikian, pertimbangan hukum MK dalam perkara ini sepanjang mengenai larangan rangkap jabatan Wamen sama seperti larangan kepada Menteri sesuai ketentuan pasal 23 UU Kementerian Negara secara yuridis sejalan dengan ketentuan Pasal 45 sampai dengan Pasal 49 UU MK, yang mana ditegaskan bahwa putusan MK mencakup pertimbangan hukum yang menjadi dasar putusan, dalam terminologi putusan, dasar/alasan pengadilan untuk memutus disebut sebagai ‘ratio decidendi’ atau ‘legal reasoning’ dalam makna yang mengikat, sehingga hukum menjadi tertib dan diterapkan secara utuh ‘uitputtend’, dengan demikian berdasarkan mandat konstitusional dalam pertimbangan hukum MK itu, hal ini menjadi kaidah yang harus ikuti serta bercorak wajib,” simpulnya.[]

By Kareba Indonesia

Pemimpin Redaksi Kareba Indonesia

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